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Data Modeling in SAP NetWeaver BW


Авторы: Frank K. Wolf, Stefan Yamada
Издательство:
Страниц:542
ISBN: 978-1-59229-346-9
Доступные форматы:


Авторы

Frank K. Wolf, Stefan Yamada

Аннотация

Sound functioning data models are not only a prerequisite to a successful BW landscape, but also fundamental to allowing an organization’s reporting and analysis operations to mature, evolve, and expand with the company. This book provides practical coverage of all the concepts and technologies associated with a fundamentally strong data model, ensuring that a model not only satisfies a company’s existing reporting and analysis needs today, but is also built to grow and adapt to a company’s changing needs.

Fundamentals of Data Modeling
Learn about the fundamentals of data modeling, including architecture, front-end tools, and the Data Warehousing Workbench.

Flexible Data Models for SAP NetWeaver BW
Understand why and how to develop a flexible data model.

New Topics and Technologies
Discover new technologies such as the nearline storage accelerator, planning applications, and the SAP BusinessObjects themes.

Case Studies
Benefit from extensive case studies that use actual data modeling project examples to illustrate how to develop a data model and how to use the Business Content for specific business purposes.

Valuable Reference Content
Leverage the substantial reference content provided in the appendices, including a list of common SAP abbreviations, transaction codes, programs, functional modules, tables, and delta processes.

Highlights

· Basic Principles of Data Modeling
· SAP NetWeaver BW and SAP BusinessObjects
· DataProviders
· Layered, Scalable Architecture (LSA)
· SAP Business Content
· Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW)
· The Reporting Layer
· Planning Applications
· Data Retention

The Author

Frank K. Wolf is an SAP NetWeaver BW and SAP BI solution consultant. Stefan Yamada is a freelance consultant specializing in large international SAP NetWeaver BW implementation projects.

Table of Contents 

  • 1 ... Introduction ... 15
  • 1.1 ... Target Audience ... 17
  • 1.2 ... Structure of the Book ... 18
  • 1.3 ... How to Use This Book ... 20
  • 1.4 ... Acknowledgments ... 21
  • 2 ... Basic Principles of Data Modeling ... 23
  • 2.1 ... SAP NetWeaver BW as a Data Warehouse (DWH) System ... 24
  • 2.2 ... Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Model ... 26
  • 2.3 ... Modeling Methods ... 27
  • 2.3.1 ... ER Model ... 27
  • 2.3.2 ... ADAPT Model ... 29
  • 2.4 ... Conceptual Multidimensional Modeling ... 33
  • 2.4.1 ... Dimensions ... 34
  • 2.4.2 ... Key Figures ... 36
  • 2.5 ... Logical Multidimensional Modeling ... 42
  • 2.5.1 ... Flat Reporting Structure ... 42
  • 2.5.2 ... Star Schema ... 44
  • 2.5.3 ... Galaxies ... 46
  • 2.5.4 ... Fact Constellation Schema ... 47
  • 2.5.5 ... Snowflake Schema ... 48
  • 2.5.6 ... BW Star Schema ... 49
  • 2.5.7 ... Operational Data Store (ODS) ... 50
  • 2.6 ... Physical Multidimensional Modeling ... 51
  • 2.7 ... Conclusion ... 51
  • 3 ... Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW and SAP BusinessObjects ... 53
  • 3.1 ... SAP NetWeaver ... 53
  • 3.1.1 ... Service Orientation ... 54
  • 3.1.2 ... Key Areas of SAP NetWeaver ... 55
  • 3.2 ... Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW 7.x ... 58
  • 3.2.1 ... Administration and Metadata Management ... 60
  • 3.2.2 ... Overview of Reporting and Analysis Using SAP NetWeaver BW ... 64
  • 3.2.3 ... BEx Query Designer ... 66
  • 3.2.4 ... BEx Web Analyzer ... 68
  • 3.2.5 ... BEx Analyzer ... 69
  • 3.2.6 ... BEx WAD ... 70
  • 3.2.7 ... BEx Report Designer ... 71
  • 3.2.8 ... BEx Broadcaster ... 73
  • 3.2.9 ... SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer ... 73
  • 3.3 ... SAP BusinessObjects ... 76
  • 3.3.1 ... Web Intelligence ... 77
  • 3.3.2 ... Crystal Reports ... 78
  • 3.3.3 ... Xcelsius ... 79
  • 3.3.4 ... SAP BusinessObjects Universes ... 80
  • 3.3.5 ... SAP BusinessObjects Live Office ... 81
  • 3.3.6 ... SAP BusinessObjects Explorer ... 81
  • 3.4 ... Conclusion ... 82
  • 4 ... Structure of a BW Data Model ... 85
  • 4.1 ... InfoObjects ... 86
  • 4.1.1 ... Characteristics ... 88
  • 4.1.2 ... Key Figures ... 99
  • 4.1.3 ... Currencies and Units ... 110
  • 4.1.4 ... Times ... 112
  • 4.2 ... Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW ... 113
  • 4.2.1 ... Texts ... 113
  • 4.2.2 ... Attributes ... 116
  • 4.2.3 ... External Hierarchies ... 120
  • 4.3 ... DSOs ... 128
  • 4.3.1 ... Creating DSOs ... 129
  • 4.3.2 ... Standard DSO ... 131
  • 4.3.3 ... Write-Optimized DSO ... 134
  • 4.3.4 ... DSO for Direct Update ... 135
  • 4.3.5 ... Summary Comparison of DSOs ... 136
  • 4.4 ... InfoCubes ... 137
  • 4.4.1 ... Physical Data Model ... 138
  • 4.4.2 ... Modeling an InfoCube ... 139
  • 4.5 ... Providers for Real-Time Data Access ... 141
  • 4.5.1 ... Direct Access with VirtualProviders ... 142
  • 4.5.2 ... RDA ... 145
  • 4.6 ... Conclusion ... 148
  • 5 ... Reference Architecture for Data Modeling ... 151
  • 5.1 ... LSA ... 152
  • 5.1.1 ... Procedure when Developing a Customer-Specific LSA ... 153
  • 5.1.2 ... Layer Model of the Reference Architecture ... 154
  • 5.1.3 ... Domains ... 167
  • 5.1.4 ... LSA Assistant Building Blocks ... 170
  • 5.1.5 ... LSA and Flexibility When Making Changes ... 172
  • 5.2 ... Naming Conventions ... 175
  • 5.3 ... Information Integration as a Prerequisite for Cross-Sectional Evaluations ... 180
  • 5.4 ... Conclusion ... 183
  • 6 ... Business Content ... 185
  • 6.1 ... Basic Principles ... 186
  • 6.2 ... Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW ... 190
  • 6.2.1 ... Customer ... 191
  • 6.2.2 ... Material ... 192
  • 6.2.3 ... Organizational Characteristics ... 193
  • 6.2.4 ... Accounts ... 195
  • 6.2.5 ... Employees ... 195
  • 6.2.6 ... Time Characteristics ... 196
  • 6.2.7 ... Currencies ... 198
  • 6.3 ... SAP NetWeaver BW in FI ... 200
  • 6.3.1 ... G/L Reporting ... 200
  • 6.3.2 ... Accounts Receivable Reporting ... 201
  • 6.3.3 ... Accounts Payable Reporting ... 202
  • 6.3.4 ... Asset Accounting Reporting ... 203
  • 6.3.5 ... Special Purpose Ledger Reporting ... 204
  • 6.3.6 ... Travel Expense Reporting ... 205
  • 6.4 ... SAP NetWeaver BW in CO ... 205
  • 6.4.1 ... Cost Center Reporting and Overhead Cost Reporting ... 206
  • 6.4.2 ... Product Cost Reporting ... 209
  • 6.4.3 ... Profitability Analysis Reporting ... 210
  • 6.4.4 ... Profit Center Reporting ... 212
  • 6.5 ... SAP NetWeaver BW in SD ... 212
  • 6.5.1 ... Quotation and Order Reporting (Application 11) ... 217
  • 6.5.2 ... Delivery Reporting (Application 12) ... 219
  • 6.5.3 ... Invoice Reporting (Application 13) ... 219
  • 6.6 ... SAP NetWeaver BW in HR ... 220
  • 6.6.1 ... Personnel Administration Reporting (0HR_PA*) ... 220
  • 6.6.2 ... Time Management Reporting (0HR_PT*) ... 221
  • 6.6.3 ... Payroll Reporting (0HR_PY*) ... 222
  • 6.7 ... Classification Data ... 222
  • 6.8 ... Activation and Enhancement ... 223
  • 6.8.1 ... Activating Business Content in SAP ECC ... 223
  • 6.8.2 ... Activating Business Content in SAP NetWeaver BW ... 224
  • 6.8.3 ... Enhancing a DataSource ... 225
  • 6.8.4 ... Reading Information in the BW Backend ... 226
  • 6.9 ... Miscellaneous ... 229
  • 6.10 ... Conclusion ... 229
  • 7 ... Modeling the EDW ... 231
  • 7.1 ... Reference Architecture for Staging Scenarios ... 232
  • 7.2 ... Defining Inbound Interfaces ... 233
  • 7.3 ... Delta Process ... 235
  • 7.4 ... Modeling Data Storage ... 239
  • 7.5 ... Transformations ... 241
  • 7.5.1 ... Important Rule Types ... 244
  • 7.5.2 ... Start, End, and Expert Routines ... 246
  • 7.6 ... Domain Creation and Central Transformations ... 248
  • 7.7 ... Process Chains ... 250
  • 7.8 ... Load Control ... 253
  • 7.9 ... Master Data ... 256
  • 7.9.1 ... Special Features When Loading Master Data ... 257
  • 7.9.2 ... Integrating Multiple Sources ... 262
  • 7.9.3 ... Staging Texts ... 268
  • 7.9.4 ... Staging Hierarchies ... 270
  • 7.9.5 ... SAP NetWeaver MDM ... 270
  • 7.10 ... Data Timeliness and History Management ... 271
  • 7.11 ... Conclusion ... 274
  • 8 ... Data Modeling in the Reporting Layer ... 277
  • 8.1 ... Architecture of the Reporting Layer ... 278
  • 8.2 ... Modeling and Optimization of InfoCubes ... 282
  • 8.2.1 ... Modeling ... 283
  • 8.2.2 ... Aggregates ... 293
  • 8.2.3 ... Compression ... 295
  • 8.2.4 ... Partitioning ... 297
  • 8.2.5 ... OLAP Cache ... 298
  • 8.2.6 ... SAP NetWeaver BWA ... 299
  • 8.3 ... Enhanced InfoCube Modeling ... 300
  • 8.3.1 ... Virtual Key Figures and Characteristics ... 300
  • 8.3.2 ... Exception Aggregation ... 304
  • 8.3.3 ... Restricted and Calculated Key Figures ... 307
  • 8.4 ... Virtual Layer ... 309
  • 8.4.1 ... MultiProvider in the Virtual Layer ... 309
  • 8.4.2 ... InfoSets in the Virtual Layer ... 319
  • 8.5 ... Universes in SAP BusinessObjects ... 324
  • 8.5.1 ... SAP BusinessObjects Universes on the Basis of SAP NetWeaver BW ... 325
  • 8.5.2 ... Defining the Universe on a DataProvider or Query ... 326
  • 8.5.3 ... Revising the Universe ... 332
  • 8.6 ... Conclusion ... 336
  • 9 ... Case Studies ... 337
  • 9.1 ... Modeling According to LSA Principles ... 337
  • 9.1.1 ... Introduction of the Application Case ... 338
  • 9.1.2 ... Interface Description for the Source System ... 338
  • 9.1.3 ... Formation of Layers and Data Storage ... 340
  • 9.1.4 ... Domain Formation ... 343
  • 9.1.5 ... Creating Application Components ... 345
  • 9.1.6 ... Implementing Flat File DataSources ... 347
  • 9.1.7 ... Defining Data Storage and InfoSources ... 348
  • 9.1.8 ... Setting Up the Data Flow ... 349
  • 9.1.9 ... Implementing Central Transformations with Characteristic Routines ... 351
  • 9.1.10 ... Creating the Process Chain ... 353
  • 9.1.11 ... Setting Up the Reporting and Virtual Layer ... 355
  • 9.1.12 ... Conclusion ... 364
  • 9.2 ... Case Study Using Business Content ... 365
  • 9.2.1 ... Processes in Accounts Receivable Accounting ... 366
  • 9.2.2 ... Aging Grid Analyses ... 371
  • 9.2.3 ... Payment History ... 375
  • 9.2.4 ... DSO Determination ... 376
  • 9.2.5 ... Credit Management ... 383
  • 9.2.6 ... Dunning History ... 384
  • 9.2.7 ... Cash Reporting ... 386
  • 9.2.8 ... Sales Reporting ... 393
  • 9.2.9 ... Overall View of AR Reporting ... 400
  • 9.3 ... Conclusion ... 401
  • 10 ... Data Modeling for Planning Applications ... 403
  • 10.1 ... Planning System and Control System Requirements ... 404
  • 10.2 ... Overview of BW Integrated Planning ... 407
  • 10.2.1 ... Components of a Planning Application ... 408
  • 10.2.2 ... Diagram of a Planning Application ... 410
  • 10.2.3 ... Modeling Alternatives ... 412
  • 10.3 ... Case Study — Cost Planning on the Cost Center Level ... 414
  • 10.3.1 ... Initial Situation ... 414
  • 10.3.2 ... Transferring Actual Data ... 415
  • 10.3.3 ... Modeling the Planning InfoCube ... 417
  • 10.3.4 ... Creating the Integrated Plan/Actual View ... 417
  • 10.3.5 ... Defining the Aggregation Level ... 419
  • 10.3.6 ... Structure of an Input Layout ... 421
  • 10.3.7 ... Extension – Data Formatting for Actual Data Transfer ... 423
  • 10.4 ... Specific Modeling Issues ... 430
  • 10.4.1 ... Key Figures and Account Model ... 430
  • 10.4.2 ... Tracking Changes to a Plan ... 432
  • 10.4.3 ... Status Management and Version Management ... 435
  • 10.4.4 ... Retraction ... 437
  • 10.4.5 ... Transferring Subplans ... 441
  • 10.5 ... Conclusion ... 444
  • 11 ... Optimizing Data Retention ... 447
  • 11.1 ... ILM ... 448
  • 11.1.1 ... Data Lifecycle in SAP NetWeaver BW ... 449
  • 11.1.2 ... ILM for InfoCubes and DataStore Objects ... 451
  • 11.1.3 ... ILM for Master Data ... 455
  • 11.1.4 ... ILM for Change Log and Log Data ... 455
  • 11.1.5 ... ILM and LSA ... 456
  • 11.2 ... Optimizing the Data Model ... 457
  • 11.2.1 ... Analyzing the Data Model ... 459
  • 11.2.2 ... Changing the Fact Table ... 461
  • 11.2.3 ... Changing the Dimension Model ... 463
  • 11.2.4 ... Changing DSOs ... 464
  • 11.2.5 ... Changing InfoObjects ... 465
  • 11.2.6 ... Remodeling Function ... 467
  • 11.2.7 ... Activation Programs ... 469
  • 11.3 ... Conclusion ... 469
  • 12 ... Specific Data Modeling Issues in BW Projects ... 471
  • 12.1 ... General Conditions ... 471
  • 12.2 ... The BW Functional Specification ... 473
  • 12.2.1 ... Process Description and Business Issues ... 474
  • 12.2.2 ... Functional Description of the Transformation of Characteristics ... 475
  • 12.2.3 ... Functional Description of the Transformation of Key Figures ... 476
  • 12.2.4 ... Data Model in the Functional Specification ... 477
  • 12.2.5 ... Reporting/User Interface ... 478
  • 12.2.6 ... Time Aspects of Data Load Processes and Data Retention ... 479
  • 12.2.7 ... Authorization ... 481
  • 12.2.8 ... Validation ... 484
  • 12.3 ... Specifications of the IT Department ... 484
  • 12.4 ... Conclusion ... 486
  • 13 ... Summary and Outlook ... 487
  • ... Appendices ... 493
  • A ... Abbreviations ... 495
  • B ... Transactions ... 501
  • C ... Programs ... 509
  • D ... Function Modules and Includes ... 513
  • D.1 ... Function Modules ... 513
  • D.2 ... Includes ... 515
  • E ... Tables ... 517
  • F ... Delta Processes ... 519
  • G ... Posting Keys ... 521
  • H ... Glossary ... 527
  • I ... Literature ... 531
  • J ... The Authors ... 535
  • ... Index ... 537

ISBN

978-1-59229-346-9

Обложка

Hardcover

Объём

542 страницы